Species Name: Capsicum annuum var annuum Linne

Color: Bright green maturing to red, drying to brownish-red

Average Size: 7 - 10" long, 1 3/4 - 2" diameter

Shape: Elongated, flattened, tapering to a blunt point.

Description: Fresh chiles must be roasted and peeled before using. They can be smoked too, giving them a deliciously, distinctive flavor.

Scoville Heat Units: 1,000 - 1,500

Substitute if Not Available: Poblano (for fresh), ancho or guajillo (for dried)

Other Names: Anaheim, California long green chile, chilacate, chile college, chile colorado, chile de ristra, childe verde, Chimayo, Hatch long green/red chile, New Mexico No. 9, pasado

Related Cultivars: Anahaim, Anaheim M, Anaheim TMR 23, Big Jim, California, Chimayo, Colorado, Coronado, Eclipse, Espanola Improved, New Mexico No. 9, NuMex, Red Chile, R-Naky, Sandia, Sunrise, Sunset, TAM Mild Chile, TMR 23

Most Commonly Grown In: New Mexico, California

Interesting Facts: It is believed that this pepper was originally brought from Mexico to New Mexico around 1597. Almost 300 years later, a rancher from California took some seeds from New Mexico to Oxnard and started growing the first cultivar, known as the Anaheim. It was named for the city he later built a pepper cannery in. Many other cultivars now exist (see list above). These chiles are practically a religion in New Mexico where harvest festivals abound and the plentiful chiles are made into chile ristras, now a New Mexican symbol. A ristra is a string of chiles which is hung to dry. The dried chiles are then used during the rest of the year while making an attractive decoration in the meantime. Several years ago, at the National Pepper Conference, scientists recommended that this chile be universally known as the 'long green/red chile', but New Mexican growers and producers did not agree. They insisted it be called the New Mexican Chile and went so far as to get the name designated in the Congressional Record in Washington, D.C.

Most Common Uses: Stuffed as chile rellenos, soups, stews, sauces, casseroles, ornamental (ie. chile ristras)